Немецкое Рождество

Хотя рождественские праздники и встреча Нового года уже давно позади, в этом посте я хочу рассказать, как мы провели наше первое Рождество в Германии.

Рождество в Германии называется Weihnachten, это один из самых любимых, красивых и сказочных праздников у немцев.

рождественские кафе в Равенсбурге

Готовиться к Рождеству начинают в ноябре: украшают магазины, улицы, деревья и фасады домов.

витрина магазина в Равенсбурге

Уже в первые выходные декабря на главных улицах городов открываются рождественские базары.  В нашем городе в центре были установлены небольшие деревянные павильоны с прилавками и закрытые шатры. Все украшено яркой иллюминацией, звучит музыка, аппетитно пахнет жареными сосисками, сладкими хрустящими вафлями, глинтвейном и пуншем.

рождественский базар

В центре главной площади установили ясли.

рождественские ясли в центре Равенсбурга

В это время, особенно по вечерам, можно окунуться в рождественскую сказку, почувствовать приближение самого детского и волшебного праздника, встретиться большой шумной компанией и получить кучу положительных эмоций, радости и веселья.

главная рождественская площадь в Равенсбурге

С 1 декабря в Германии начинается Адвент. Это время, предшествующее католическому Рождеству, в течение которого немцы готовятся к празднику, посещают церковь, соблюдают традиции Адвента. Одной из самых известных традиций является зажигание свечей в венке Адвента. Это венок из еловых веток, в который вплетены 4 свечи. Такие венки продают на рынках и в магазинах, ими украшают церкви и дома. Смысл обряда в том, что в каждое воскресенье декабря зажигают по одной свече, таким образом, чем ближе к Рождеству, тем светлее становится вокруг. Наши друзья купили вот такой милый венок:

advent_venok

Больше всего, конечно, Рождества ждут дети. Во время Адвента для детей в магазинах продаются Адвент-календари. Они выглядят, как коробка конфет, но на крышке коробки находятся окошки с числами от 1 до 24. Дети, начиная с 1 декабря, ищут соответствующее число на коробке и открывают окошко. Обычно под каждым числом спрятана конфета или небольшая шоколадка или другая сладость.

advent-kalender

Адвент-календари также можно сделать своими руками, а в качестве подарков использовать не только сладости, но и маленькие игрушки. Для взрослых тоже продают Адвент-календари, например в магазинах парфюмерии и косметики.

В Равенсбурге в центре города один из домов превращается в большой Адвент-календарь. Каждый день здесь открываются ставни окошек, за которыми можно увидеть разные рождественские картинки. Нам было интересно, и мы ждали, как дети, а что будет на следующей картинке.

фасад дома в виде адвент-календаря

6 декабря к детям в Германии приходит Николаус. Выглядит он как священник и приносит маленькие подарки, например, небольшие шоколадки.  Николаус приходит также в дома для престарелых, на занятия к студентам и в офисы разных фирм 🙂

Nikolaus

В ночь на Рождество к детям приходит Weihnachtsman (Вайнахтсман), который приносит заветные долгожданные подарки. Выглядит он, как всем известный Санта.

weihnachtsmann

Рождество немцы чаще всего отмечают в семейном кругу, это домашний праздник. Близким, родственникам, друзьям дарят разные подарки, в магазинах в это время пустеют полки и всегда много народа. После Рождества почти все магазины несколько дней закрыты. Многие берут отпуска в дополнение к официальным нерабочим дням и уезжают отдыхать. Рождественские базары закрываются,

закрытие рождественского базара

города пустеют.

пустые улицы после Рождества

На улицах становится тихо, все отдыхают после рождественской и новогодней суеты, встречаются с близкими, ходят в гости. В школах новогодние каникулы длятся до 7 января. К этому времени жизнь возвращается в свое русло, уже открыты все кафе, магазины, люди возвращаются из отпусков и выходят на работу. А в конце января уже начинается подготовка к следующему большому празднику — карнавалам Fastnacht или Fasching (немецкий вариант русской Масленицы).

Другие статьи по теме:

Elena

Елена, 01.02.2015

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