флаг германии

Германия в цифрах

Государственный строй

Германия — демократическое парламентское федеративное государство с 1949 года. Объединение Германии в единое государство произошло в 1990 году. Официальное название страны Федеративная Республика Германия (Bundesrepublik Deutschland).

Население

Население Германии на 2015 год составляет около 80 миллионов человек. Численность мужского населения составляет 49%, а женского 51% от общего числа. По прогнозам на 2015 год смертность превысит рождаемость более чем на 200 тысяч человек. Миграционный прирост населения, согласно прогнозам, составит чуть больше 43 тысяч человек. Таким образом, предполагается, что население Германии в 2015 году уменьшится примерно на 160 тысяч человек.

Столица

Столица Германии — Берлин. Это самый крупный и населенный город Германии, в котором проживает более 3,4 миллиона человек. В настоящее время Берлин является мировым культурным мегаполисом, центром притяжения молодежи и одним из самых посещаемых городов на континенте.

берлин

Государственный флаг

На флаге Германии изображены три полосы: черная, красная, золотая.

Государственный символ

Символом Германии является стилизованный черный орел.

Гимн Германии

Национальным гимном Германии является мелодия Йозефа Гайдна «Песнь Кайзера», написанная в 1797 году в честь австрийского императора Франца II. Стихи к этой музыке написал Гоффманн фон Фаллерслебен в 1841 году.

Национальный праздник

Немцы отмечают День Национального Единства 3 октября. Этот день отмечается с 1990 года в честь объединения ФРГ и ГДР в единое государство.

Президент страны

Федеральным президентом Германии с 2012 года является Йоахим Гаук. Он выполняет представительские функции — представляет Германию на международной арене.

Канцлер Германии

Федеральным канцлером Германии с 2005 года является Ангела Меркель. Канцлер формирует правительство и определяет политический курс страны.

Официальный язык

Немецкий язык является официальным в Германии, Австрии и Швейцарии.

Административное деление

Германия представлена в составе 16-ти земель, которые условно делят на «старые» земли (ФРГ) и «новые» (ГДР), вошедшие в состав современной Германии после объединения государства. К новым землям относятся Мекленбург, Бранденбург, Саксония-Анхальт, Саксония, Тюрингия и Берлин, не принадлежащий ни к одной земле. Старые земли — Баден-Вюртемберг, Бавария, свободный город Бремен, свободный город Гамбург, Гессен, Северный Рейн-Вестфалия,  Рейнланд-Пфальц, Саар, Нижняя Саксония, Шлезвиг-Гольштейн.

земли германии

Экономика

Экономика Германии является самой сильной экономикой среди европейских стран и четвертой по величине в мире. Номинальный ВВП в 2014 году составил 3,820 триллиона долларов.

Индекс человеческого развития (ИЧР), который ежегодно рассчитывается для сравнения стран по таким показателям, как уровень жизни, грамотности, образованности, долголетия в Германии составляет 0,911. Это относит Германию к странам с очень высоким индексом развития. По итогам 2014 году Германия заняла 6 место в первой десятке стран с очень высоким индексом развития. Первое место принадлежит Норвегии, США заняли 5-е место, на 10-м месте Дания. Франция заняла 20-е место, а замыкает таблицу стран с очень высоким индексом Словения с показателем 0,874.

Высшие учебные заведения

В Германии насчитывается 370 высших учебных заведений. Из них около 200 относится к университетам прикладных наук, в которых учится около 2,6 миллионов студентов, 300 тысяч из которых иностранцы. Большинство иностранцев приезжает учиться в Германию из Китая, России, Австрии и Индии.

Культурные учреждения

Замок Нойшванштайн. Вид с горы Тегельберг. Баварские Альпы.

6200 музеев, 820 театральных сцен, 130 профессиональных оркестров и 8800 библиотек Германии радушно открывают двери перед посетителями.

Елена, 13.08.2015

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